to command, organisation and employment of the force will be settled in a
" 5. This Agreement will come into force immediately upon signature
and without ratification.
" Protocol. The Soviet Government grants an amnesty to all Polish
citizens now detained on Soviet territory either as prisoners-of-war or on
other sufficient grounds, as from the resumption of diplomatic relations."
After the signing of the Agreement the British Foreign Secretary,
Eden, handed General Sikorski a Note couched in the following terms :
" On the occasion of the signature of the Polish-Soviet Agreement of
to-day's date, I desire to take the opportunity of informing you that, in
conformity with the provisions of the agreement of mutual assistance between
the United Kingdom and Poland of August 25,1939, His Majesty's Govern-
ment in the United Kingdom have entered into no undertaking towards
the U.S.S.R. which affects the relations between that country and Poland.
I also desire to assure you that his Majesty's Government do not recognise
any territorial changes which have been effected in Poland since August, 1939.
General Sikorski handed a reply to the British Foreign Secretary to the
" The Polish Government take note of your Excellency's letter, date
30th July, 1941, and desire to express sincere satisfaction at the statement
that His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom do not recognise
any territorial changes which have been effected in Poland since August,
1939. This corresponds with the view of the Polish Government, who, as
they have previously informed His Majesty's Government, have never
recognised any territorial changes effected in Poland since the outbreak o
the present war."
The next day, Sumner Wells, Under-Secretary of State for Foreign
Affairs, on behalf of the United States, made a similar declaration to
Britain., namely that
" the United States did not recognise any change in her (Poland's) status
as a free, sovereign and independent Power . . . The Polish-Russian
Agreement is in conformity with the policy of the United States, which
does not recognise any territorial changes made by aggression."
Did recognition of the fact that " the Soviet-German Treaties of 1939,
concerning territorial changes in Poland had lost their validity," mean,
therefore, that Poland and Russia were both returning to their frontiers ?
The Russian occupation of half of Poland had never been recognised by
any of the Powers, apart from the invaders themselves, i.e., Russia and
Germany. Already by July 30th, 1941, when the agreement was being
signed, Russia, who de facto had possessed that region for twenty-one
months by droit de conqu&rant had been expelled from it by the new
conqueror, and her previous ally Germany. Furthermore, Russia, of
her own freewill, had renounced this territory when she signed the agree-
ment with Poland. Although the word e frontier * was in point of fact
never mentioned in the text of the Agreement, it could obviously be
concluded that the frontiers of Poland were now dejure where they had
been in August, 1939.